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More than 40 governors attended the 110th Winter Meeting, which focused on how elected officials can partner with other nations to strengthen American ties, as well as how emerging and future technologies will shape the world we live in.

As part of the National Governors Association Winter Meeting and in an effort to commemorate 100 years of the Australian-U.S. strategic alliance, the Council for the Australian Federation and National Governors Association agreed to strengthen cross-country ties through a memorandum of understanding at a ceremony in Washington D.C.

The National Governors Association announced a new office that will focus on the relationship between states and the international community called NGA Global.


Governors' and spouses' biographies, searchable database and contact information.

NGA Center for Best Practices

The NGA Center develops innovative solutions to today’s most pressing public policy challenges.

Government Relations

The Office of Government Relations' mission is to ensure governors’ views are represented in the shaping of federal policy.

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June 20, 2018

NGA releases report advising states on decreasing the skills gap in the labor force

The National Governors Association (NGA) released a comprehensive report, on June 20th. The road map highlights the current disparities in the U.S. between the high number of jobs requiring advanced technical education and the dwindling population of workers with the skills to fill them. The report also identifies the process for governors to solve this challenge by aligning education and training with the needs of states’ economies.

June 13, 2018

NGA Announces Three New Health Initiatives With States

WASHINGTON —The National Governors Association (NGA) announced three new health policyinitiatives today to assist states.


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2017–2018 NGA Chair Gov. Brian Sandoval's Initiative


February 28, 2018

NGA Considerations of Public and School Safety

On Feb. 26, 2018, as part of the NGA Winter Meeting, governors met with the President and discussed many possible approaches to improving school safety. Each governor is developing strategies to best address the safety of children in their state's schools. This memo captures some of the discussions held at the meeting, as well as ongoing state efforts to promote school safety.

February 06, 2018

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A new road map from the National Governors Association highlights steps that governors can take to improve coordination and strengthen existing efforts across state agencies and identifies recent state efforts to adopt strategies to reduce traffic fatalities.

February 05, 2018

Parents and Children Thriving Together: The Role of State Agencies in Crafting a Statewide Two-Generation Strategy

A new paper from the National Governors Association and the Center for Law and Social Policy provides an overview of ways in which states can use two-generation strategies to reform state systems for the benefit of low-income families.

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The USP: Endless personality quiz questions that give you a match percentage with would-be partners.

Pros: You can weed out people with traits or points of view you find simply unacceptable. Racists, bigots and Mumford Sons fans, then.

Cons: Too many basic functions are restricted to paid membership.

Verdict: Worth a shot, if only to kill time answering bizarre questions about yourself.

The USP: Based around suggesting dates, rather than banging on about yourself.

Pros: Beautifully designed.

Cons: Not many people use it. Yet.

Verdict: One for grown ups. If dating apps have an 'atmosphere', then How About We is a pleasant summer garden party where people enjoy polite conversation and no one makes an inappropriate lunge on anyone else until at least 1 am.

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The USP: It's a huge ocean, with more members than any of the others (around 70 million).

Pros: Unlike most of the other apps, doing the basics on POF – looking at profiles, sending and reading messages – is absolutely free.

Cons: A high number of sexually frustrated virgin-trolls means a lot of women find using it a harrowing experience, which understandably makes them cagey when you come along. It's disheartening how many women have to resort to 'please no sex pests' appendixs on their profile information.

Verdict: Easy to navigate, simple and free to use, void of distracting gimmicks. And unlike Tinder, users tend to write a bit about themselves, meaning you have more to go on (and sell yourself with) than just your 5 least-worst selfies.

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The USP: It really works. If you happen to be gay, bisexual or curious.

Pros: Easy and efficient to use, you can find a hookup within minutes.

Cons: It is notoriously 'glitchy', with messages disappearing and some functions not working properly.

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Verdict: The app that started it all, Grindr has been helping men who like men improve their sex lives since 2009. Whether they are honest about it or not, every heterosexual internet dating app out there aspires to be the 'Grindr for straight people'. Has is happened yet? Not even close.

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Considering that this study applied the culinary preparations that people have used for millennia, it contributes to recommending the food that may be beneficial to most of the population within a geographical region. The retrieval of traditional cuisine dishes is an attempt to apply the findings of epidemiological studies and connect them to sustainability [ Vibram FiveFingers KSO FapI4b5
] and sociocultural-ecological [ 27 ] approaches, in order to design better recommendations based on specific food items [ Rocket Dog Jenkins T2eRlr
] and diminish the high or increasing burden of disease or death associated with unhealthy diets, for the prevention and control of NCD [ 29 ].

The results of this experiment also show that, in a model more similar to the conditions in which NCD develop, the intake of specific food items, though decreasing the effects of the environment in the form of a sucrose solution, in the long run produces the metabolic changes of the metabolic syndrome, even in the presence of protective foods. The value of these results must be placed in the context of recommending types of food as part of a way of life, more than in recommending a particular food item to treat hyperlipidemia or to decrease the risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus or hypertension [ 30 , 31 ].

The contribution of this study lies in the need to elaborate recommendations for a healthy nutrition based on meals, not individual nutrient items [ 28 ]. This emphasis considers that they are not equivalent [ Donald Pliner Deedee Lizard Embossed Flat 1lhJaApwek
] and that all culinary preparations made with one individual food item do not have the same effect on metabolism and health [ 31 ]. Experimental studies with humans have shown that the way one cooks is important, as in the case of black beans with respect to glucose metabolism [ 32 ]. The way fish is prepared also has an effect on the prevention of cardiometabolic, cerebral vascular and Alzheimer’s diseases, according to epidemiological studies [ Frye Carson Ankle Strap Ballet Flat rUDtt
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]. Thus, it is important to analyse the effect of maize tortillas on achieving a healthy phenotype, not only for Mesoamerica where there is a high intake of this food, but to establish a line of research to analyse the effect of food preparation in traditional kitchens on the metabolic profile of the population.

This study on tortillas and pozol, traditional Mexican food items, does not define whether the changes are the result of the metabolism of probiotics, of the metabolic activity of prebiotics [ 19 , 35 ] or of changes in chromatin methylation, among other possible mechanisms. However, it is a first study aimed at establishing the molecular modifications that govern the genes that are expressed and those that remain silent, and determining the reason behind the presence of healthy obese phenotypes and of obese phenotypes associated with diseases following food intake patterns.

What were the original motivations behind routine infant circumcision in the West?

Routine circumcision as a preventative or cure for masturbation was proposed in Victorian times in America. Masturbation was thought to be the cause of a number of diseases. The procedure of routine circumcision became commonplace between 1870 and 1920, and it consequently spread to all the English-speaking countries (England, Canada, Australia and New Zealand). None of these countries now circumcise the majority of their male children, a distinction reserved today for the United States (in the UK, in fact, nonreligious circumcision has virtually ceased). Yet, there are still those who promote this social surgery, long after the masturbation hysteria of the past century has subsided.

Dr. E.J. Spratling, who promoted this surgery by telling his colleagues that "...circumcision is undoubtedly the physician's closest friend and ally..." prescribed in 1895 the method of circumcision as it is practiced in hospitals today.

Here is an example of what another sexaphobic American doctor had to say about masturbation in 1903:

(The above material is quoted from J. Bigelow, Calvin Klein Nadeen Metallic Snake Print Strappy Dress Sandals Up5rhYg52K
, Hourglass Book Publishing, Aptos, CA, USA. Thanks to Robin Verner.)

In America, foreskins were not rare at the time circumcision was introduced into widespread practice. Paradoxically, then, the understanding of the intact male organ at that time was somewhat than it is today. (In particular, it never would have been possible to promote circumcision on the basis that it was "necessary for hygienic reasons"---this came later, when doctors themselves were mostly circumcised men.)

Further, in proposing circumcision as a preventative against self-abuse, physicians of the day understood very well that male masturbation involves stimulation of the foreskin. However they were incorrect in assuming that, by reducing the pleasure, masturbation itself could be reduced or eliminated.

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Interestingly, Messrs. John Harvey Kellogg and Sylvester Graham (advocates of fibre, of both the moral and dietary varieties) were involved in this Here's what Dr. Kellogg recommended: ...Isn't that enough to put you off Corn Flakes for the rest of your life? Visit this link for an essay by Carrie McLaren about Kellogg and Graham.

Circumcision in America, England and the other countries received a strong boost during each of the World Wars, because it was claimed that the procedure was necessary for soldiers for "hygienic reasons". SKECHERS Performance Go Run Mojo Verve 40wLi7

In 1949, the important work of Gairdner appeared in Britain, which led to the virtual cessation of medically-motivated circumcision in that country. Australia and New Zealand now also have very low rates (5% or less).

The largest problem remains in the United States, where the procedure has become culturally entrenched. The American public largely still believes circumcision to be a useful procedure, even though the rest of the world does perfectly well without it. It is worth noting that in 1996 the Canadian Paediatric Society issued a statement depreciating the value of circumcision in rather strong terms. All Canadian provinces have dropped insurance coverage for circumcision.

Circumcision never became an issue in continental Europe and in most of Asia, where the vast majority of men are intact. Religious circumcision is popular in some African, Muslim and Middle Eastern countries.

How is this genital reduction surgery perpetuated in the West today?

From its original roots in anti-masturbation hysteria, circumcision continues in English-speaking western countries (the United States, Canada, Australia and New Zealand) because of mistaken beliefs and unfounded fears about hygiene, disease, appearance and sexuality, and denial of the pain of infant circumcision. Please see the article by Marilyn Fayre Milos, RN, and Donna Macris, CNM, MSN, in the Journal of Nurse-Midwifery, Vol.37,No.2 (Suppl.), March/April 1992.

For an excellent historical article detailing how circumcision became entrenched as a medical practice, see , by David L. Gollaher, Journal of Social History, Fall 1994, vol. 28 no. 1, pp. 5-36. (Read the article)

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